What is diabetes type 1?
diabetes type 1 describes a condition in which the body can not produce insulin, leading to high blood sugar and associated complications. The condition, which usually develops in childhood or adolescence, affects millions of people around the world.
Types of diabetes and their pathology
There are two main types of diabetes:
diabetes type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM)
diabetes type 1 is also called juvenile diabetes because it usually starts before age 25 and accounts for 95% of diabetes in people of this age group. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels and helps the body to use sugar. Insulin is not produced because the immune system in the body mistakenly makes beta cells producing insulin in the pancreas for foreign objects and causes an immune attack against them that destroys them. Individuals with diabetes type 1 rely on insulin injections to regulate their blood sugar.
Type 2 diabetes or Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM)
This type of diabetes is also called maturity, where it develops most often in middle age. In this case, the body fails either to produce enough insulin to meet the needs of the body or insulin that is produced does not work as usual on the cells of the body.
The latter is known as insulin resistance.
Symptoms Of diabetes type 1
There are three major symptoms of diabetes which include polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger) and polyuria (increased urination frequency). In addition, patients may complain of fatigue, weight loss and loss of bulk muscle.
Type 1 diabetes can develop very rapidly over a period of weeks or even days.
Diagnosis and treatment of diabetes type 1
Early diagnosis and treatment is vital in diabetes type 1. Diagnosis includes assessment of blood sugar, insulin levels, and treatment aimed at maintaining blood sugar at an almost normal level. If left untreated, diabetes type 1 can lead to many complications such as diabetic nephropathy (kidney disease), diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage) and neuropathy (nerve damage). Because type 1 diabetes is caused by insulin deficiency, insulin injections are used to normalize blood sugar levels